MDCAT Syllabus and Learning Objectives For Biology

Learning Objectives

Let’s look at the Biology syllabus and the learning objectives to cover all the biology course systematically that will come in Mdcat exam.


1. Bio-diversity (acellular life/variety of life)
2. Bio-energetic
3. Biological molecules
4. Cell structure and function
5. Coordination and control/nervous & chemical coordination
6. Diversity among animals
7. Enzymes
8. Evolution
9. Life process in animals and plants (nutrition/gaseous exchange/
10. Prokaryotes
11. Reproduction
12. Support and movement
13. Variation and genetics/inheritance



1. Biodiversity (acellular life/variety of life)

i. Classification of viruses
ii. Discovery of viruses
iii. Structure of viruses
iv. Viral disease (for example AIDS)
Learning Objectives
i. Trace the discovery of virus
ii. Classify viruses on basis of their structure/no. of strands/diseases/host
iii. Identify symptoms, mode of transmission and causes of viral disease

2. Bioenergetics

i. Anaerobic respiration (respiration without oxygen)
ii. Electron transport chain
iii. Glycolysis/glycolytic pathway/aerobic respiration
iv. Light dependent and light independent phases/reactions,
v. Oxidative phosphorylation /cyclic and non- cyclic phosphorylation,
vi. Photosynthesis,
vii. Production of ATP,
viii. Role of light, water, CO2, /factors effecting photosynthesis
Learning Objectives
i. Explain the process of photosynthesis
ii. Explain the role of factors(light, water, CO2) affecting photosynthesis
iii. Explain light dependent and independent phases/reaction
iv. Differentiate among Electron transport chain,
phosphorylation, glycolysis, aerobic and anaerobic

3. Biological molecules

i. Introduction to biological molecules
ii. Water
iii. Carbohydrates
iv. Proteins
v. Lipids
vi. Conjugated molecules (glycolipids, glycoproteins)
Learning Objectives
i. Define and classify biological molecules.
ii. Discuss the importance of biological molecules
iii. Describe biologically important properties of water (polarity,
hydrolysis, specific heat, water as solvent and reagent,
density, cohesion/ionization)
iv. Discuss carbohydrates: monosaccharides (glucose), oligosaccharides
(cane sugar,
sucrose, lactose), polysaccharides (starches, cellulose, glycogen)
v. Describe proteins: amino acids, structure of proteins
vi. Describe lipids: phospholipids, triglycerides, alcohol and esters
vii. Give an account of RNA
viii. Discuss conjugated molecules(glycol lipids, glycol proteins)
4. Cell structure and function
i. Cell wall,
ii. Cytoplasm and cell organelles
o Nucleus
o Endoplasmic reticulum
o Mitochondria
o Golgi apparatus/golgi complex /golgi bodies
o Lysosomes
o Plastids/chloroplasts

o Vacuoles
iii. Prokaryote and eukaryote
iv. Fluid mosaic model
Learning Objectives
i. Compare the structure of typical animal and plant cell
ii. Compare and contrast the structure of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic
iii. Outline the structure and function of the following organelles:
nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria
iv. Discuss fluid mosaic model of cell membrane

5. Coordination and control/nervous & chemical coordination

i. Nervous system
o Nerve impulse
o Steps involved in nervous coordination
o Neurons (Structure and Types)
ii. Transmission of action potential between cells–synapse
o Electrical synapses
o Chemical synapses
o Transmission of nerve impulse across synapse
iii. Hormones
iv. Endocrine glands
v. Feedback mechanism
o Positive feedback mechanism
o Negative feedback mechanism
vi. Reflexes and reflex arc
vii. Levels of the spinal cord and its main functions
viii.Parts of the brain with their main functions

Learning Objectives

i. Recognize receptors as transducers sensitive to various stimuli.
ii. Define neurons
iii. Explain the structure of a typical neuron (cell body,
dendrites, axon and myelin sheath and schwann cells)
iv. Define nerve impulse
v. List the levels of the spinal cord
vi. List the functions of the spinal cord
vii. Classify reflexes
viii.Briefly explain the functions of components of a reflex arc
ix. List the main parts of the brain (e.g. components of brain stem, mid brain,
cerebellum, cerebrum)
x. Describe the functions of each part

6. Diversity among animals (The Kingdom Animalia)

i. Characteristics and diversity among the animals (animal phyla,
Learning Objectives
i. Describe general characteristic of animals

7. Enzymes

i. Introduction/characteristics of enzymes
ii. Mechanism of action of enzymes
iii. Factors effecting rate of enzyme action
iv. Enzyme inhibition
Learning Objectives
i. Describe the distinguishing characteristics of enzymes
ii. Explain mechanism of action of enzymes
iii. Describe effects of factor on enzyme action (temperature, pH, concentration)
iv. Describe enzyme inhibitors

8. Evolution

i. Concepts of evolution
ii. Inheritance of acquired characteristics
iii. Darwinism’
iv. Darwin’s theory evolution
v. Neo-Darwinism’s
vi. Evidence of evolution
Learning Objectives
i. Explain origin of life according to concept of evolution
ii. Describe the theory of inheritance of acquired characters, as proposed by
iii. Explain the theory of natural selection as proposed by Darwin

9. Life processes in animals and plants (nutrition/gaseous exchange/transport)

i. Carnivorous plants/parasitic nutrition (pitcher plant, venus fly trap, sundew)
ii. Water and mineral uptake by roots, xylem and phloem
iii. Osmotic pressure/potential
iv. Cardiovascular system (including human heart structure, blood vessels)
v. Respiratory system
vi. Digestive system
vii. Immune & system
viii. Lymphatic system
Learning Objectives
i. Discuss the examples of carnivorous plants (pitcher plant, venus fly trap,
ii. Describe osmotic pressure and its importance in life processes in animals and
iii. Describe water and minerals uptake by roots, xylem and phloem
iv. List general structure of human heart
v. Define the phases of a cardiac cycle
vi. List the differences and functions of capillaries, arteries and veins

vii. Describe lymphatic system (organs, nodules, vessels)
viii. Define and discuss the functions and importance of main
components of immune system
ix. Discuss the functions of main part of respiratory system
x. Discuss the role of surfactant in gas exchange
xi. Discuss the process of gas exchange in human lungs
xii. List the parts of human digestive system
xiii. Explain the functions of the main parts of the digestive
system including associated structures and glands

10. Prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera)

i. Cellular Structure of bacteria
ii. Shape and size of bacteria
iii. Importance and control of bacteria
Learning Objectives
i. Describe cellular structures of bacteria
ii. Explain diversity in shape and size in bacteria
iii. Highlight the importance of bacteria and control of harmful bacteria
11. Reproduction
i. Male reproductive system
ii. Female reproductive system (including menstrual cycle)
iii. Sexually transmitted diseases
Learning Objectives
i. Describe the functions of various parts of the male & female
reproductive systems and the hormones that regulate those functions
ii. Describe the menstrual cycle (female reproductive cycle)
emphasizing the role of hormones
iii. List the common sexually transmitted diseases along with their
causative agents and main symptoms

12. Support and movement

i. Cartilage
ii. Types of muscles
o Skeletal muscles
o Cardiac muscles
o Smooth muscles
i. Structure of skeletal muscles
ii. Mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction
iii. Types of joints
iv. Gout and arthritis
Learning Objectives
i. Define cartilage, muscle and bone
ii. Explain the main characteristics of cartilage and bone along with functions
of both
iii. Compare characteristics of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and skeletal
iv. Explain the ultra-structure of skeletal muscles
v. Describe in brief the process of skeletal muscle contraction
vi. Classify joints
vii. Define gout and arthritis

13. Variation and genetics/inheritance

i. Mendel’s law of inheritance
o Gregor John Mendel and his work
o Mendel’s experiment
o Inheritance of single trait
o Mendel’s principles of inheritance
o Inheritance of two traits
o Law of independent assortment
o Scope of independent assortment in variation
o Statistics and probability relevant to genetics

ii. Multiple allelesiii. Gene linkages and crossing over
iv. Sex linkages in drosophila
v. Sex linkage in human
o Genetics of hemophilia
Learning Objectives
i. Associate inheritance with the laws of Mendel.
ii. Explain the law of independent assortment, using a suitable example.
iii. Describe the terms gene linkage and crossing over
iv. Explain how gene linkage counters independent assortment and
crossing-over modifies the progeny
v. Describe the concept of sex-linkage.
vi. Briefly describe Inheritance of sex –linked traits
vii. Analyze the inheritance of hemophilia

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4 Comments on “MDCAT Syllabus and Learning Objectives For Biology”

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