Respiratory Disorders

Respiratory Disorders
Let’s study Respiratory Disorders, in detail
  1. Upper Respiratory Disorder
  2. Lower respiratoiry Disorder
Upper Respiratory Disorders:
  1. Sinusitis
  2. Otitis media


Sinusitis is the inflammation of nasal sinuses that may be acute and lasts for 2 to 8 weeks or chronic whose symptoms last much longer. The sinuses are holes inĀ  the skull and between facial bones. There are four large sinuses in the cheekbones. Two above cheekbones are maxillary sinuses and two above eyes are frontal sinuses.

Causes and Risk Factors:

It is usually caused by infection bacterial or viral but can also be caused by allergic reactions dust, pollen etc. Environmental agents such as excessive dryness in homes and offices from dry air heating and air conditioning systems can also inflame the sinuses.

Symptoms of Sinusitis:

Classic symptoms of acute sinusitis are:

  • Fever
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Pus like nasal discharge
  • Loss of sense of smell
  • Facial pain or headache
  • Entering of nasal fluid into pharynx

Treatment of Sinusitis:

  • Antibiotics
  • Sulfa drugs


Otitis Media:

Otitis media is the inflammation of the middle ear. The eustachian tube equalize the pressure between the middle ear cavity and the outside mucus to drain out of the middle ear cavity.

Causes and Risk Factors:

Commnly children are more affected than adults because of the small size and horizontal position of their eustachian tube and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Otitis media:

  • sudden severe earache
  • deafness
  • ringing or buzzing sounds of ear
  • sense of fullness in ear
  • irratibality
  • fever
  • change in appetite or sleeping patterns
  • fluid leaking from ear
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty in speaking and hearing
Treatment of Otitis Media:
  • Antibiotics
  • Pain killers


Lower Respiratory Disorders:

  1. Pneumonia
  2. Tuberculosis


Pneumonia is a serious disorder of lower respiratory tract which is characterized by inflammation of alveolar wall and the presence of fluid and pus in alveolar sacs of one or both lungs.

Symptoms Of Pneumonia:
  • Bacterial Pneumonia
  • Viral Pneumonia
  • Mycoplassma Pneuumonia Pneumonia

Treatment of Pneumonia:

  • Antibiotics depending on severity.


It is caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets.


  • loss of weight
  • loss of energy
  • diseases that weaken the immune system

Treatment for Tuberculosis:

  • Antibiotics
  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin
  1. Emphysema ( Alveoli rupture due to excessive coughing)
  2. Lung cancer (Mostly caused by smoking)
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